body dissatisfaction scale

The present research details the development of a new pictorial scale (Body Dissatisfaction Scale) to be used in the measurement of body dissatisfaction. However, we openly solicit comments, corrections or modifications on existing material as well as your suggestions for additional terms on the vast subject of eating disorders. Swami, V., Einon, D., & Furnham, A. Hove, UK: Routledge. PLoS ONE, 7(11), e50601. Sociocultural pressures to attain a socially desirable physique are considered important risk factors for body dissatisfaction. Afterwards, the resultant scale of 26… This scale included many items which were not culturally appropriate such as sexual activities, sex drive, sex organs, agility, and reflexes. The most popular figural rating scales were developed by Stunkard et al. Initial examination of the validity and reliability of the female photographic figure rating scale for body image assessment. In S. Grogan (Ed. The aim of the current study was to develop, test, and retest two new male body dissatisfaction scales: The Male Body Scale (MBS; consisting of emaciated to obese figures) and the Male Fit Body Scale (MFBS; consisting of emaciated to muscular figures). (2007). However, no effort has been made to explore the culture specific nature of body dissatisfaction. (1999). This includes judgements about size and shape, muscle tone and generally involves a discrepancy between one's own body type and an ideal body type. A three-year longitudinal study of body image, eating disturbance, and general psychological functioning in adolescent females. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1997.96102.x, Thompson, J. K., & Altabe, M. N. (1991). Development and validation of a multidimensional eating disorder inventory for anorexia nervosa and bulimia. In S. S. Kety, L. P. Rowland, R. L. Sidman, & S. W. Matthysse (Eds. A., & Thompson, J. K. (1994). 9-40). Responses to these items will be collected via Survey Monkey and will be completely confidential and anonymous. tive score on the body dissatisfaction scale (which reflected a higher desire for weight gain). New York, NY: Guilford Press. Body dissatisfaction among women has been found to be so common in Western societies that it is considered to be normative discontent (McLaren & Kuh, 2004). SUBJECTS AND METHOD: We carried out 6 studies utilizing 2 samples of 91 and 569 school adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. There have been two frequently used approaches to measure body dissatisfaction that is figure rating scales and questionnaires. However, the psychometric properties of this instrument have not been tested in the Brazilian context. (2006). In particular, media awareness, knowledge of ideals as presented by the media, or actions taken or comments made … 295-303). Evidence for construct validity was demonstrated by significant correlations between ratings of perceived actual body size using the current scale and participants’ BMI. The influence of feminist ascription on judgements of women’s physical attractiveness. Conservation Biology, 11, 276–280. The scale comprises nine female and nine male images of computer generated bodies that increase successively in body weight. What is an attractive body? In T. F. Cash & T. Pruzinsky (Eds. All items are rated on a 6-point scale, from 1 (never) to 6 (always), with higher scores indicating greater dissatisfaction. One item on BD scale measures the feeling of bloating (2008). The Male Body Dissatisfaction Scale (MBDS) has been widely used among students to research body image disturbances and eating disorders. Baguley, T. (2012). This evaluative dimension of body image is dependent on a person's investment of mental and emotional energy in body size, parts, shape, processes, and functions, and is integral to one's sense of self-concept. Maisey, D. S., Vale, E., Cornelissen, P. L., & Tovée, M. J. The Body Parts Dissatisfaction Scale (BPDS) (for use with adolescent girls) We developed the Body Parts Dissatisfaction Scale (BPDS) to assess bodily discontent in a manner that we believed might be more sensitive to middle-school girls’ experiences of their bodies. In T. F. Cash & L. Smolak (Eds. Some popular questionnaires to measure body dissatisfaction include the Body Esteem Scale by Franzoi and Shields (1984). Methodological concerns when using silhouettes to measure body image. In V. Swami & A. Furnham (Eds. Body image and anorexia nervosa. Test-retest reliability remained stable over a 5 week period. Grogan (2008) defines body dissatisfaction as a person’s negative thoughts about his or her own body. Journal of Personality Assessment, 64(2), 258-269. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa6402_6. (2005). Body dissatisfaction measured using the current scale was also negatively correlated with a measure of body appreciation. The BDS scale can be used to measure body dissatisfaction by numbering the bodies from 1 to 9 (in ascending order of size); each body is scored as one body unit. These sources may provide direct or indirect pressures to attain the desirable physique. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan. ), Body beautiful: Evolutionary and sociocultural perspective (pp. Psychological Science, 9(2), 150-155. doi:10.1111/1467-9280.00029, Thomas, L. (1997). Send your suggestions and comments to. In studies 4, 5 and 6, various indexes of reliability and validity were calculated and scores were typified. Due to the implications of body dissatisfaction, it is important to study this phenomenon in Pakistani culture. Download gandalf& #39 s. Additional source references are provided for those wishing to delve deeper. Validity of self-reported height and weight in 4808 EPIC-oxford participants. Body figure perceptions and preferences among pre-adolescent children. S mission is to help loved ones recover from eating disorders by providing information and mutual support, promoting evidence-based treatment, and advocating for research and education to reduce the suffering associated with eating disorders. Body image was assessed with the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale, which examined the dissatisfaction people experienced with 24 aspects of their bodies. It is widely used as an outcome measure in controlled trials. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the media and body satisfaction/ self-esteem. The EATING DISORDERS GLOSSARY is researched, written and maintained by F.E.A.S.T - Families Empowered and Supporting Treatment of Eating Disorders, an international non-profit organization. Epidemiology of eating disorders: Incidence, prevalence and mortality rates. Some popular questionnaires to measure body dissatisfaction include the Body Esteem Scale by Franzoi and Shields (1984). (1983). These scales were also compared to one of the most widely used body dissatisfaction scales for over 30 years (Stunkard Figure Rating Scale; SFRS), and the published test/retest reliability results for one of the most commonly used current body dissatisfaction scales (Somatomorphic Matrix ), which includes both muscularity and adiposity for females. (2008b). In particular, we sought use of a measure that lists body parts in concrete terms but does not prompt responses along a satisfaction–dissatisfaction continuum, as is common among measures of this type. The maximum value of each question is “4,” with minimum values of “1,” and scores are summed for a total score. The Abuse of Power. The muscular male: A comparison of the physical attractiveness preferences of gay and heterosexual men. Why an ED glossary? Public Health Nutrition, 5, 561-565. doi:10.1079/PHN2001322. This paper describes the development of a simple paper-and-pencil test designed to measure satisfaction/dissatisfaction with 16 body parts. International Journal of Men’s Health, 7(1), 59-71. doi:10.3149/jmh.0701.59, Tassinary, L. G., & Hansen, K. A. This instrument is designed specifically for adolescents and has a good reliability and validity when compared to other available instruments. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Current Psychiatry Reports, 14(4), 406-414. doi:10.1007/s11920-012-0282-y, Spencer, E. A., Appleby, P. N., Davey, G. K., & Key, T. J. This scale includes a list of various aspects of one's physical body, and the respondent is required to rate their degree of satisfaction or dissatisfaction with that part. Second Version of the Adolescent Body Image Satisfaction Scale. RESULTS: The eventual questionnaire was made up of 32 items with 6 categories of responses. The Body Parts Dissatisfaction Scale (BPDS) to assess bodily discontent in a manner that we believed might be more sensitive to middle-school girls’ experiences of their bodies. The body dissatisfaction subscale of the Body Attitude Test (BAT; Probst et al. Lancet, 353(9163), 1500-1500. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(99)00438-9. If a person experiences dissatisfaction with this image, it is labeled as body dissatisfaction. The physical body is the first and foremost basis for an individual's sense of self. Grogan, S. (2008). Adaptive significance of female physical attractiveness: Role of waist-to-hip ratio. Families Empowered and Supporting Treatment of Eating disorders - is an international organization of and for parents and caregivers. In the first phase of the study, the construct of body dissatisfaction was explored through semi-structured interview questionnaires from 20 university students which yielded a list of 31 items. 115-120). 46-63). About F.E.A.S.T. Etching of Pool Plaster Making a distinction from delamination or spalling of the surface, where spots of new plaster have separated from previous plaster layers, 'Spot Etching' is a symptom that is almost universally blamed on pool owners, or service companies performing water balance or new plaster start-up. Body dissatisfaction is said to result from a discrepancy between one's perceived body and one's ideal body (Niide et al., 2011; Showers & Larson, 1999). Methodological issues in studies of female attractiveness. Serious statistics: A guide to advanced statistics for the behavioral sciences. Male physical attractiveness in Britain and Malaysia: A crosscultural study. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 10(2), 199-208. doi:10.1002/1098-108X(199103)10:2<199::AID-EAT2260100209>3.0.CO;2-D, Crossley, K. L., Cornelissen, P. L., & Tovée, M. J. The scale comprises nine female and nine male images of computer generated bodies that increase successively in body weight. Body Dissatisfaction (BD) The Body Dissatisfaction scale consists of 10 items that assess discontentment with the overall shape and with the size of those regions of the body of extraordinary concern to those with eating disorders (i.e., stomach, hips, thighs, buttocks). ), Body image: A handbook of science, practice and prevention (2nd ed., pp. Kenmore Elite Smartwash Quiet Pak 9 Service Manual, Download Film Quickie Express Full Movie 3gp, Whatsapp Free Download For Nokia Asha 305, Body Parts Satisfaction Scale Questionnaire. Adolescent body dissatisfaction was measured by Body Dissatisfaction Scale that evaluated the deviance of the body image in adolescents (Baile, Guillén, & Garrido, 2003). From a very young age, girls learn that thin is synonymous with beauty, happiness, success, and youth (Tiggemann, 2011). With increased awareness of the psychological problems associated with poor body image and body dissatisfaction, researchers (Brown et al., 1990; Stewart & Williamson, 2004) during the past two decades have focused on the development of many instruments to measure body image and body dissatisfaction. Concurrent Validity was established with the help of two measures of the Body Areas Satisfaction Scale of the Multidimensional Body Self-Relation Questionnaire- Appearance Scale (Brown, Cash, and Mikula, … These items were then given to experts for content validity. A non-profit organization founded in 2008, F.E.A.S.T.' Use of the Danish adoption register for the study of obesity and thinness. Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention, 2(2), 114-125. doi:10.1080/10640269408249107, Collins, M. E. (1991). The present study examined the direct and … See for the story and to download the paper. This subscale consists of four items with a seven-point Likert scale ranging from completely disagree (1) to completely agree (7). (1998). Body dissatisfaction assessed by the Photographic Figure Rating Scale is associated with sociocultural, personality, and media influences. According to Littleton and Ollendick (2003), body dissatisfaction increases with age and peaks during adolescence particularly in women. The present research details the development of a new pictorial scale (Body Dissatisfaction Scale) to be used in the measurement of body dissatisfaction. The Figure Rating Scale developed by Stunkard et al. Using a sample of 190 students female = 130, male = 60) results showed that the new scale exhibits good validity, with participants being able to correctly identify body weight differences between all bodies … Tiggemann, M. (2011). Participant responses to items for both the body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness subscales were recorded on a 6-point scale from 1 (never) to 6 (always). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan. Sociocultural perspectives of human appearance and body image. The reliability for the scale was: Cronbach's alpha for the whole sample, 0.91 (from 0.66 in the group of boys aged 17-19 years to 0.93 in the group of girls aged 14-16 years). However, the possible impact of body image dissatisfaction (BID) on cyberbullying remains untested. Each item is rated using a scale from Never(1) to Always(6). (2001). These scales were compared to the two most commonly used visually based indices of body dissatisfaction (Stunkard Figure Rating … 22.viii.17 With her support I mounted the that Melanie Bash (nee Taylor) wrote that describes in the creation of the BSQ. The 26 items were divided into four dimensions: self-image (e.g., “I feel upset about my image”), pathological changes associated with body image (e.g., “I want to improve my appearance through plastic surgery”), … Item responses were reverse coded where appropriate and summed to form a total score (range: 5 to 30 for body dissatisfaction; 7 to 42 for drive for thinness). Singh, D. (1993). Among student participants, the prevalence of body dissatisfaction with musculature and general appearance was 11.2 and 5.3%, respectively. The Appearance Orientation Scale (12 items) evaluates the investment in one’s appearance, with low scores indicating that people do not place importance on or invest much … Abstract In 1972, the first major national study on body image was conducted under the auspices of Psychology Today. 11.xi.17: mounted my paper: Evans, Dolan and Toriola (1997) as the publishers have lost it!!! Psychosomatic Medicine, 49(6), 626-634. doi:10.1097/00006842-198711000-00008, Gardner, R. M., Friedman, B. N., & Jackson, N. A. Kinsey, A. C., Pomeroy, W. B., & Martin, C. E. (1998). The definitions are designed to inform and explain the terms factually according to the best evidence available. Some research work that has been done on body dissatisfaction in Pakistan focuses on exploring the risk factors associated with body dissatisfaction (Farooq, Latif, Abideen, & Khan, 2010; Khan, Khalid, Khan, & Jabeen, 2011). Stunkard, A. J., Sorensen, T., & Schulsinger, F.(1983). The influence of skin tone, hair length, and hair colour on ratings of women’s physical attractiveness, health and fertility. We found that an eight-item BDS measures two dimensions of body dissatisfaction: (1) dissatisfaction with one’s overall body shape that including stomach size and (2) dissatisfaction with buttock, hips and thighs. (2008a). Does hunger influence judgments of female physical attractiveness? This scale includes a list of various aspects of one's physical body, and the respondent is required to rate their degree of satisfaction or dissatisfaction with that part. A critical test of the waist-to-hip-ratio hypothesis of female physical attractiveness. Men and body image: Are males satisfied with their body weight? An exploratory factor analysis conducted on 2,013 adults revealed factors for men (Face, Sex Organ, Height, Lower Body, Mid Torso, Upper Torso, Height) and women (Face, Sex Organ, Height, Lower Torso, Mid Torso, Extremities, Breast). 1996), was used to assess body dissatisfaction. 26.xi.17: joins the. Body Image, 3(4), 317-323. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2006.08.003, Swami, V., Furnham, A., & Joshi, K. (2008). Girls have been found to be experiencing body dissatisfaction even at the age of seven. Large number of researches (Knauss, Paxton, & Alsaker, 2007; McCabe & Ricciardelli, 2009) provide evidence that the majority of girls and women are dissatisfied with their bodies, particularly with weight, size, and shape. Evolution and Human Behavior, 33(2), 85-93. doi:10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2011.05.008, Copyright (c) 2017 The New School Psychology Bulletin. The mean score of the C group was significantly different from the mean score of the BB group for the Body Dissatis- faction scale. The leg-to-body ratio as a human aesthetic criterion. Garner, D. (2002). Culture and body image. Using a sample of 190 students (female = 130, male = 60) results showed that the new scale exhibits good validity, with participants being able to correctly identify body weight differences between all bodies … International Journal of Eating Disorders, 10(5), 615-619. doi:10.1002/1098-108X(199109)10:5<615::AID-EAT2260100514>3.0.CO;2-K, Thompson, M. A., & Gray, J. J. CONCLUSIONS: Our research provides a new instrument for the evaluation of body dissatisfaction. Using an interactive 3D program to create the ideal body for you and your partner. The analyses provide a useful comparison point for researchers looking to examine gender differences in dissatisfaction with specific aspects of the body, as well as the factor structures linking these items. Distrust, and Maturity Fears scales. Body Image, 2(4), 383-393. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2005.08.001, Swami, V., & Tovée, M. J. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 2, 15-34. doi:10.1002/1098-108x(198321)2:2<15::aideat2260020203>3.0.co;2-6. The present research details the development of a new pictorial scale (Body Dissatisfaction Scale) to be used in the measurement of body dissatisfaction. ), The genetics of neurological and psychiatric disorder (pp. Bodybuilders and controls had similar scores on all ED1 subscales except the Body Dissatisfaction scale, for which the mean score of the C group exceeded that of the BB group. 1995) was used to measure body dissatisfaction. Development and validation of a new body image assessment scale. S founding principles:. Body dissatisfaction has been found to be linked with different psychological problems including depressive mood (Stice, Hayward, Cameron, Killen, & Taylor, 2000), anxiety (Ivezaj et al., 2010), social physique anxiety (Brunet, Sabiston, Dorsch, & McCreary, 2010), and social phobia in both girls and boys (Paxton, Neumark-Sztainer, Hannan, & Eisenberg, 2006). Latest. (1983) was used in the present research as it is a neutral, unbiased, and culture fair method of assessing the degree of body dissatisfaction experienced by an individual. Sexual behavior in the human male. (2006). New York, NY: Free Press. The OBSS was more strongly correlated with disordered eating behaviors and fat self-schema than the HTB. Personality and Individual Differences, 44(8), 1752-1761. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2008.02.002, Swami, V., Salem, N., Furnham, A., & Tovée, M. J. Body Image, 2(3), 285-297. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2005.06.002. The message of the thin ideal is internalized and girls try their best to achieve this ideal. The scale improves on previous pictorial scales by offering both male and female versions while offering improved realism and consistency between images. Every individual sets some standards for his/her ideal physical appearance. The organization is run by a board of directors, almost all of whom are parents of sufferers, and it is guided by a Professional Advisory Panel of eating disorders experts from the United States, France, United Kingdom and Australia. History Page started by Chris Evans in 2003, last updated 11.xi.17 Future plans In the future I hope to have the English in PDF format and both Malay and Spanish in ODF, PDF, HTML and Word formats and for all the versions. BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In Spain there is a lack of specific instruments for the evaluation of deviance of the body image in adolescents. Pope, H. G., Phillips, K. A., & Olivardia, R. (2000). This comprehensive glossary has been created to give parents a quick reference tool that explains, in simple lay language, the terms used in the research, management and treatment of eating disorders. In studies 1, 2 and 3 we designed a questionnaire with items selected from the bibliography to analyze the discriminate power. Cattarin, J. Using a sample of 190 students (female = 130, male = 60) results showed that the new scale exhibits good validity, with participants being able to correctly identify body weight differences between all bodies in the scale. Bateson, M., Cornelissen, P. L., & Tovée, M. J. Content. Categorical perception of human female physical attractiveness and health. The score for each sub-scale is then summed. The concurrent validity led to indexes between 0.67 and 0.89 using other instruments, and the factorial analysis showed 4 factors explaining 50.3% of the variance. Despite the continued reliance on this scale and reference to the study, data on the factor structure of this measure in a sample of adults have never been published, and citations of the original scale have relied on an unpublished manuscript (Bohrnstedt, 1977). Preliminary evidence suggests that psychopathological factors (e.g., depression) are associated with higher engagement in cyberbullying perpetration, and those with elevated body image dissatisfaction (BID) are more susceptible to depression. Reported low levels of male body dissatisfaction may be due to the majority of body dissatisfaction scales, such as the EDI-3 (Garner, 2004) or the Stunkard Figure Rating Scale (Stunkard, Sørensen, & Schulsinger, 1983) having been developed to focus on and measure fat-related concerns which are more commonly reported in females. Psychologists called this phenomenon the drive for muscularity (Murnen, 2011). This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The BDD-YBOCS is an observer rated scale to assess the severity of BDD symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(2), 293-307. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.65.2.293, Smink, F., van Hoeken, D., & Hoek, H. W. (2012). (2012). Across 2 … Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. On the BASS, respondents rate how dissatisfied or satisfied they are with their overall appearance and with eight specific areas/attributes—face, hair, lower torso, mid-torso, upper … Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 49(5), 429-437. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9450.2008.00651.x, Swami, V., Salem, N., Furnham, A., & Tovée, M. J. The American Statistician, 55, 19-24. doi:10.1198/000313001300339897. New York, NY: Raven. (1998). • Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) within the plaster mix. Earlier, psychologists had assumed that body dissatisfaction was a phenomenon mainly related to women but later research (Gorgan, 2008) showed that men also experience dissatisfaction with their bodies and at least one-third majority desires to be more muscular. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(1), 114-122. doi:10.1002/jclp.20526. Create your own unique website with customizable templates. The scale comprises nine female and nine male images of computer generated bodies that increase successively in body weight. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 86(2), 387-395. doi:10.2466/pms.1998.86.2.387, Gardner, R. M., Jappe, L. M., & Gardner, L. (2009). level of body dissatisfaction (F [1,38]=35.64, p<0.001) than the males. Garner, D. M., Olmsted, M. P., & Polivy, J. Body Image, 5(2), 224-229. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2007.10.003, Swami, V., & Tovée, M. J. A popular measure is the Body Areas Satisfaction Scale (BASS), a subscale of the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ; Brown, Cash, & Mikulka, 1990; Cash, 2000b; Cash & Henry, 1995). Body cathexis is defined as the degree of satisfaction or dissatisfaction one feels towards various parts and aspects of his or her own body. Body Satisfaction Scale (BSS): A 16-item, self-report questionnaire that measures body dissatisfaction. The body appreciation scale: Development and psychometric evaluation. They do not seek to advise you on any course of treatment; that should remain the domain of your treatment providers. Characteristics of male attractiveness for women. Retrospective power analysis. 1983), in its French translation (Archinard et al. Using the transformed scores as the dependent vari- The aim of this research was to design and to validate a specific instrument for the evaluation of adolescent body dissatisfaction. The definitions and explanations provided here have been edited with the help of members of FEAST's Professional Advisory Panel. (1995). 12-19). Each of 16 body parts is rated on a seven-point scale ranging from “very satisfied” to “very dissatisfied,” but does not measure the nature of the dissatisfaction. Participants are asked to choose the body they would most like to look like (ideal) and the body they thought was closest to their perceived actual body shape (actual). British Journal of Psychology, 97(3), 353-363. doi:10.1348/000712605X80713, Swami, V., & Tovée, M. J. Sadly, this has become.. Hoenig, J. M., & Heisey, D, M. (2001). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050601, Drewnowski, A., & Yee, D. K. (1987). ), Body image: Understanding body dissatisfaction in men, women and children (pp. It was developed by Katherine Phillips and colleagues and consists of 12 items and the range is from 0 to 48. To protect the quality of information, the glossary cannot be edited by readers. Effect of Experimental Manipulation 1/ Body satisfaction: i) visual analogue scales - the means of the visual analogue rating scores for males and females are shown in Table 2. Body Parts Satisfaction Scale for Men Michael B. McFarland and Trent A. Petrie University of North Texas Given the centrality of body dissatisfaction in the manifestation of eating, exercise, and affective disturbances in men, measurement of this construct becomes essential. ), Body image: A handbook of theory, research, and clinical practice (pp. The 32-item ABISS is scored using a Likert scale to determine body image satisfaction. New York, NY: Guilford Press. There was a significant difference (p < 0.001) between the methods for calculating the score for body dissatisfaction, since the mean overestimated the scores. The 8 subscale scores on the EDI are: Drive for thinness: an excessive concern with dieting, preoccupation with weight, and fear of weight gain; Bulimia: episodes of binge eating and purging; Body dissatisfaction: not being satisfied with one's physical appearance Pressures for women to be thin and fit, and for men to be lean and muscular, can originate from numerous sources, including the media, parents, siblings, partners, and peers. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 52, 57–53. Body Dissatisfaction The body dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI-BD) (Garner et al. (1983) and Thompson and Altabe (1991). Psychometric qualities of the figure rating scale. Development and validation of a new figural drawing scale for body-image assessment: The BIAS-BD. People who reported more dissatisfaction with their body also tended to report lower self-esteem and less comfort interacting with members of the other sex. The factors were weakly to moderately intercorrelated, suggesting the scale can be analyzed by items, by subscales, or by total score. Therefore, a separate set of analysis was conducted in which we squared the original body dissatisfaction scores (in order to con-vert the negative scores into positive). YOU MUST BE AT LEAST 18 YEARS OLD to … The adonis complex: The secret crisis of male body obsession. Furthermore, the Body Areas Satisfaction Scale (nine items) assesses satisfaction/dissatisfaction with particular body areas; high and low scores are analogous to the Appearance Evaluation Scale. Trait body dissatisfaction was measured via the BSQ, a 34-item questionnaire assessing body image concerns, especially with respect to feelings of fatness (and where a low BSQ score should not necessarily be interpreted as indicative of body satisfaction). Avalos, L., Tylka, T. L., & Wood-Barcalow, N. (2005). Tovée, M. J., Edmonds, L., & Vuong, Q. C. (2012). Body image is the way a person perceives, thinks, and feels about his or her body (Grogan, 2008).

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