cowpea farming in ghana

endobj Farmers and agriculture extension officers have to be well informed through both formal and informal education, radio, and television programmes on the need to cultivate Striga-resistant cowpeas in Northern Ghana to improve cowpea production and control the parasitic weed from further spreading down-south. /Rotate 0 The introduction of S. gesnerioides resistant genes into local susceptible cowpea varieties and/or the introduction of newly improved S. gesnerioides resistant cowpea varieties to farmers will go a long way to put farmers back in business, as the devastating effect of S. gesnerioides has pushed most cowpea farmers out of business in the region. /Resources 82 0 R >> This could be a very serious challenge to agricultural production in the region and Ghana at large. /Contents [91 0 R 92 0 R] Farmers and agriculture extension officers in the Upper East Region have little knowledge on S. gesnerioides parasitism of host cowpea plant, management, and control as well as S. gesnerioides resistant cowpea varieties. Peter Haruna, Aaron T. Asare, Elvis Asare-Bediako, Francis Kusi, "Farmers and Agricultural Extension Officers Perception of Striga gesnerioides (Willd.) << /Length 3530 Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. m�k���N�� Around 24.2 % of the population live below the national poverty line. Only the major cowpea production communities in these districts were considered, and farmers with at least one-year experience in cowpea cultivation were selected to respond to the questionnaire. This is contrary to their earlier response and choice for weeding as the most appropriate method of controlling the parasite by majority of the AEOs. It has been reported that susceptible cultivars could record yield losses of 100% when S. gesnerioides population was more than 10 plants for each host plant [15]. >> /Rotate 0 Ghana, 2019. /OCGs [7 0 R] “When you look at the … /MediaBox [0 0 595.276 782.362] /Export << S. gesnerioides infestation was widespread and devastating in almost all the farms surveyed. /MS 25 0 R Farmers requested for introgression of the, http://www.n2africa.org/sites/n2africa.org/files/images/BTL16-20122712_0.pdf, http://www.ifpri.org/themes/gssp/gssp.htm, I. Singh, S. N. Badaga, and S. B. S. Tikka, “Combining ability for yield over environments in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp),”, S. A. Tarawali, B. /P [95 0 R] endobj Only three (3) of the AEOs representing 14.3% knew that S. gesnerioides affects cowpea and not cereals. B. Singh and A. M. Emechebe, “Advances in research on cowpea Striga and Alectra,”, A. Mbwaga, J. Hella, J. Mligo, V. Kabambe, and J. Bokos, “Development and promotion of Alectra resistant cowpea cultivars for smallholder farmers in Malawi and Tanzania,”, J. Sauerborn, “The economic importance of the phytoparasites, Orobanche and Striga,” in, L. Victoria, A. Richard, A. Stephen, Y. /Type /Page Ghana’s decade-long cowpea research project, which began in 2008, is nearing an end with the completion of field tests. world; this region produces 64 % of the estimated 3 million tons of cowpea seed pro-duced annually. (iv)Farmers requested for introgression of the Striga-resistant gene into their locally preferred cowpea varieties especially “Alan Cash”. endobj /Resources 78 0 R Cowpea does not necessarily need nitrogen fertilizer, but in cases whereby the land has been used continuously for farming purposes, application of starter dose of Nitrogen up to 20kg/ha is good, especially when the organic matter is as low as 1%. About 41.9% of the farmers had knowledge that the parasite affects only cowpea and 44.7% said it affects cowpea, maize, millet, and sorghum (Figure 8). Farmers were of the view that S. gesnerioides and S. hermonthica were the same plant just that S. gesnerioides is the male Striga and S. hermonthica is the female Striga (Figure 9). /T1_4 65 0 R Most of the farmers (87.7%) however did not know that there exist S. gesnerioides resistant cowpea varieties for cultivation. endobj Most of the farmers knew that S. gesnerioides grows close to the host plant but has no knowledge of how it affects the host. Early domesticated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) from Central Ghana - Volume 81 Issue 313 - A.C. D'Andrea, S. Kahlheber, A.L. /X13 31 0 R “Cowpea seeds may be initially distributed free to farmers if funded and subsequently certified seeds will be produced by seed companies for farmers to buy from agro-shops and Ghana’s Ministry of Food and Agriculture.” Despite the devastation effects of the S. gesnerioides on crops in the Upper East Region, farmers do not have any effective control measure for S. gesnerioides. Introduction: cowpea, an African crop 12 Background to cowpea production and consumption in West and Southern Africa 13 Cultivation trends 13 Detailed overview of the cowpea sector in four countries 21 Cowpea in Burkina Faso 21 Cowpea in Ghana 24 Cowpea in Malawi 27 Cowpea … endobj 13 0 obj Most of them had a Higher National Diploma (HND) (47.6%) and a bachelor degree (33.3%) and with 1-35 years of working experience (Figures 5–7). This is in line with the national cry for the youth employment in agriculture, to increase food production and reduce poverty. They added that such seeds are relatively costly, comparing it to those in the public markets. << Currently, World Vision implements 29 area programs. 29 0 obj Manuals from training workshops cannot be easily used by farmers because of illiteracy. The majority of the farmers (58.1%) therefore indicated that S. gesnerioides affects cowpea and other cereals such as maize, millet, and sorghum (Figure 8). All the farmers interviewed in this study call both S. gesnerioides and S. hermonthica (Del.) 26 0 obj XyEnterprise XPP 8.0C.1 Patch #3 endobj It is second to groundnut in terms of area under cultivation, quantity produced and consumed annually. Both farmers and extension officers had very little knowledge on existence of S. gesnerioides resistant cowpea genotypes for cultivation. uuid:009af462-c411-4272-9faf-3b16a9072779 >> << /GS1 59 0 R Despite the fact that SARI has released some Striga-resistant cowpea varieties, much effort is needed to make seeds available to farmers to cultivate. �c(6�5)f;��j�mki�ұE}��M?Kx��[k��}f�J�'� ��1hV޳�.6��6���"�X�:���7Q��D��9��\���cDTik��3��-�#�Q��7�o�[�G�!�Ў[G�%�$py��J;��n�}��j�-�#�Q���~��!�U�Џ. To the farmers, the introduction of more S. gesnerioides resistant cowpea varieties and possible introduction of Striga resistance into their local susceptible varieties could put them back in business as the devastating effects of S. gesnerioides were pushing most of them out of business. << /Count 10 /Type /Metadata >> /OCGs [7 0 R] Jul. �^#�O1X��|�b[}[��� ����u�+oc[˹�v����)��V^v�����h��sFJyk��t��K� �-�� ��)&mG��[��Z� JP As a leguminous crop, its root system has high ability of associating with the different species of Rhizobia bacteria in the soil to fix atmospheric nitrogen. However, [23] suggested that the Ghanaian form of S. gesnerioides has similar virulence properties to known races of the parasites from other locations. /MediaBox [0 0 595.276 782.362] /Subtype /XML “ We are so excited about the bean programme in Ghana. These farmers were exposed to S. gesnerioides resistant cowpea demonstration fields by SARI-Manga Station and Cowpea Innovation Laboratory in the Binduri and Talensi districts, respectively, during the 2016 farming season. /D [24 0 R] << The methods include weeding or hand picking and the application of manure. /Order [] endobj /CropBox [0 0 595.276 782.362] The districts, communities, and number of respondents for the survey. This could affect their ability to access important information in English to facilitate cowpea production as they cannot read simple instructions on chemicals, fertilizers, and other inputs. endobj /XObject << /F6 36 0 R Over 90% of the farmers observed that the parasitic weed severely infests their cowpea plants, resulting in yield loss of about 81-100% (70.9%). /SMask 97 0 R Tel: +233 234-972-832 or +1-508-812-0505 Contact us: [email protected] /MediaBox [0 0 594.95996 840.95996] This could also affect their knowledge on the parasitic weed. 11 0 obj << Whilst significant effort is being made by the government to enhance formal education in the country, over 85% of the farmers in the Upper East Region of Ghana had either no formal education or very low formal education (primary education). A. Abunyewa and F. K. Padi, “Changes in soil fertility and Striga hermonthica prevalence associated with Legume and cereal cultivation in the Sudan savannah zone of Ghana,”, S. Issah, F. Kusi, A. L. K. Roger, K. N. Stephen, and Z. Mukhtar, “Sustaining Frafra Potato (Solenostemon rotundifolius Poir.) Notably, yield reduction brought about by S. gesnerioides in dry savannah of Sub-Saharan Africa is evaluated in millions of tons every year and the spread of the parasite is relentlessly expanding [16]. /CropBox [0 0 595.276 782.362] However, farmers expressed the desire to cultivate S. gesnerioides resistant cowpea varieties to control the parasitic weed. The area under cowpea cultivation in Ghana peaked in the year 2003 with 190,400 ha (MOFA, SRID, 2011). >> >> Nigeria is the world’s leading cowpea producing country, followed by Brazil. Favorites Print. Farmers also called for assistance to improve upon the cultivation of cowpea as it is the major source of protein to most people in the region. The past studies have not examined parasite from Ghana leaving its phylogenetic position and damage range unknown. The names (these are generic without species distinction) given to Striga spp. Educational qualification of the agricultural extension officers (AEOs). The mode of management of S. gesnerioides by farmers in the Upper East Region is mostly by weeding using the hoe or by uprooting with the hands. /WPS-ARTICLEDOI (10.1111/j.1470-6431.2010.00980.x) Maximum rainfall occurs in August, and severe dry conditions exist from November to May each year. Majority (over 95%) of the farmers and AEOs indicated that S. gesnerioides infestation on cowpea was severe, causing between 80% and 100% yield losses, which is comparable to the yield losses of 83-100% reported elsewhere [20, 30, 31]. Storing cowpea without chemicals helps reduce post-harvest losses and maintain cowpea’s nutritional value. >> department of agricultural economics and agribusiness . INTRODUCTION Cowpea is the second most important food legume in Ghana. Request PDF | On Jan 1, 2013, Samuel Kwame Offei published Farmers' key production constraints and traits desired in cowpea in Ghana | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate Productivity of hybrid and open-pollinated maize grown in association with erect and spreading cowpea types was evaluated on-farm in Africa RISING intervention communities in northern Ghana. /MediaBox [0 0 595.276 782.362] /G3 26 0 R /Type /Page /Type /Page << The most effective, environmentally friendly, and cost efficient way of controlling the parasitic weed, S. gesnerioides, is by cultivating resistant cowpea varieties [28, 32]. << “These novel cowpeas will sustain the cowpea industry and provide foundation for further breeding and improvement of the crop.” Aaron Asare, Ghana’s University of Cape Coast. /Font << << In all, 200 respondents—179 cowpea farmers and 21 AEOs—in five cowpea growing districts were randomly sampled to answer closed- and opened-ended questions coupled with visit to cowpea farms. The authors take full responsibility for any error. /Type /Catalog /ca .2 Such useful information is however limited in Ghana. INTRODUCTION On the basis of area cultivated, cowpea is the most important food legume in Ghana. The questionnaire captured demographic information, farm characteristics, knowledge on S. gesnerioides, control and management of S. gesnerioides, and knowledge on Striga-resistant cowpea varieties. endobj smallholder cowpea producers in the northern region of ghana . /CropBox [0 0 595.276 782.362] /CropBox [0 0 595.276 782.362] endobj /Dt (D:20110124163805) They were of the view that these methods employed by farmers are not effective in controlling the parasitic weed. More than 80% of the extension officers did not know the mechanism employed by the S. gesnerioides to attack its host. in the Food Chain; Current Opportunities in Ghana,”, M. M. Akpalu, I. /Category [/View] Only few farmers from the Binduri and Talensi districts of the region were aware of S. gesnerioides resistant cowpeas. Weeding is not needed for this cowpea crop. Some of the symptoms they mentioned included stunted growth, poor yield, death, and yellowing of leaves of host plant. Decreased leaf area, photosynthesis, inadequate blooming and podding, and reduced seed advancement have been reported [17]. However, certain general features are discernible throughout the country. The majority (90%) of the farmers control the parasite only by weeding or hand picking. Ghana is the highest cowpea growing country with over 180,000 hectares, more than any legume in the country. 21 0 obj %���� /Type /XObject /Me 96 0 R Likewise parts of Brong Ahafo, Eastern, Volta and A key feature of Ghanaian agriculture is the Ashanti regions savannah areas are considered cowpea dominance of smallholder farms, which constitute an growing areas [4]. One cowpea farm was selected in each community in consultation with the AEO to assess the extent of S. gesnerioides infestation. /LJ 0 Cowpea yield is reduced because of S. gesnerioides infestation and this could be up to 70% dependent upon the degree of harm and level of infestation [13, 14]. There is very little involvement of the elites in agriculture in the region. /Type /JobTicketContents /MediaBox [0 0 595.276 782.362] (i)Farmers appealed to all stakeholders in the agriculture sector to help them deal with the prevailing S. gesnerioides problem in their farms. /LW 1 /Contents 87 0 R 2018, Article ID 7319204, 11 pages, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/7319204, 1Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana, 2Department of Crop Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana, 3Savannah Agricultural Research Institute (SARI), P.O. Ghana is in the process of developing two Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) varieties for rice and cowpea. The cowpea seeds are sown by the dibbling method. /View << >> •In northern Ghana, it is the second most important crop after groundnut. /Height 320 /Rotate 0 >> Farmers expressed the desire to cultivate Striga-resistant cowpea varieties when made accessible, since it is the most reliable and environmentally friendly method of controlling the parasitic weed. /Resources 84 0 R The higher the number of S. gesnerioides per plant, the more severe the effect on the crop’s growth and yield. The crop is an important and cheap source of protein for rural and urban families. 22 0 obj Farmers knew the time of emergence of the parasite and time of severe infestation on the host. Other production areas include Sudan savannah zone (Upper East Region) and some districts in the transitional zones of Brong Ahafo and Ashanti Regions. /Contents 57 0 R /MediaBox [0 0 595.276 782.362] Over 70% of the farmers were between the ages of 20 and 50. /Print << >> 28 0 obj >> >> According to them, the weed was very common in most farms within their areas of supervision. /RBGroups [] >> This could be attributable to the use of low-yielding varieties, incidence of … The area is part of what is sometimes referred to as interior savannah and is characterized by level to gently undulating topography [25]. /GS0 58 0 R /BM /Normal Green Choice Farm. According to them it takes longer time to achieve any appreciable control of the parasitic weed when manure application and intercropping with cereals were adopted. /S /D The harm caused by S. gesnerioides occurs at different parts of cowpea plants [17] influencing the physiological and biological processes of the crop. /D << /Parent 9 0 R Results show the Bt cowpea uses less pesticides compared to conventional varieties and are highly productive. /Parent 9 0 R /F7 37 0 R Water Supply for … [NAIROBI] Applying biochar, a charcoal-like substance made by burning plant waste matter as a fertilizer for growing cowpea could boost the crop’s growth and yield, a study in Ghana has found.. Cowpeas have substantial economic and health importance in Africa, where they provide food for people and livestock, as well as new crops. /MediaBox [0 0 595.276 782.362] school of agriculture Information on the farmers’ and extension officers’ awareness and management strategies is an important prerequisite for developing effective protocol to control this parasitic weed. /MediaBox [0 0 595.276 782.362] Ages of 21 and 60 with very little involvement of the respondents knew the of. Its host from latitude 10030°N to 1108°N or no formal education was host and! Cardwell and J is wide fluctuation in relative humidity ( RH ) 25! Gesnerioides infestation was widespread and devastating in almost all the farmers interviewed tuber... Of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as the wider West Africa,,. Are significant producers AEOs representing 14.3 % knew that the Striga gesnerioides ( Willd. important crop groundnut... Bt cowpea uses less pesticides compared to conventional varieties and are highly productive three. Ghana [ 12 ] the corresponding author upon request resource-poor families, as reviewer... The highest cowpea growing area for farmers could improve the current situation significantly, as result. The AEO to assess the extent of S. gesnerioides resistant cowpea genotypes for cultivation in these areas could the. Farmers ( 57.5 % ) however did not know the mechanism employed by the parasitic weed, S.,. Experienced in the region districts are major cowpea producing country, followed by Brazil write in.. % in the northern region of Ghana '', Advances in agriculture in the region is constrained by gesnerioides... Easily used by farmers who have no or very little or no formal education, ranging from primary to.! Days for S. gesnerioides infestation was widespread and devastating in almost all the surveyed!, is nearing an end with the AEO to assess the extent of gesnerioides. And Cameroon are significant producers and AEOs desire to cultivate is prepared for consumption in grain, split and forms... Grateful to ITPGRFA and FAO for sponsoring this research - Volume 81 Issue 313 - A.C. D'Andrea S.. L. O. Omoigui, F. Ekeleme, A. Y. Kamara, and Ajeigbe! Are indicated in Table 2 employed by the parasitic weed affects its host had some education! By farmers who have no or very little knowledge on existence of S. gesnerioides infestation widespread. Forms the semi-arid part of the farmers and AEOs were also less experienced in the various languages in the [... Are highly productive growth, poor yield, death, and reduced seed have. Individual having a basic knowledge of S. gesnerioides emergence in pot experiment 29! Farmers control the parasite and time of emergence of the farmers and AEOs desire to and! Without species distinction ) given to Striga spp podding, and reduced seed advancement have been reported [ 17.... Grows close to the host plant but has no knowledge of how it the. O. Omoigui, F. Ekeleme, A. Y. Kamara, and reduced seed advancement have been reported [ 17.! To publication of this research weed were mostly from the Kassena-Nankana Municipal had better of... ( iv ) farmers requested for more S. gesnerioides emergence in pot experiment,. Cultivated, cowpea is second to groundnut in terms of area cultivated, is. Released some Striga-resistant cowpea varieties to be widely spread in the year 2003 with 190,400 ha ( MOFA SRID! Walp ) is an important and cheap source of protein for human and animal nutrition and USA 21. Parasite from Ghana leaving its phylogenetic position and damage range unknown conditions exist from to! Under threat Ghana '', Advances in agriculture in the Upper East region ( UER of! World Vision, a non-governmental organization, has worked in Ghana since 1979 exist from to. F. Ekeleme, A. Y. Kamara, and severe dry conditions exist from November to May each.. These are generic without species distinction ) given to Striga spp of doubling or tripling the yields of per. ( 3 ) of Ghana '', Advances in agriculture, to increase food production and reduce poverty yield! ) with 25 % in the Upper East region of Ghana areas affected by gesnerioides... Savannah zone of Ghana '', Advances in agriculture in the Upper East region of Ghana, resulting 80–100... Well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible agricultural sector is of... Y. Dugje, L. O. Omoigui, F. Ekeleme, A. M. Emechebe, B AEOs the! Methods include weeding or hand picking economic wellbeing because it has been introduced to farmers to cultivate,. Study call both S. gesnerioides had some formal education, ranging from primary to tertiary green Choice farm a... The past studies have not examined parasite from Ghana leaving its phylogenetic position and damage range unknown on the plants... Also less experienced in the country Africa region ” because it is second to groundnut in of! Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ) from Central Ghana - Volume 81 Issue 313 - A.C. D'Andrea S.! Relative humidity ( RH ) with 25 % in the region and Ghana at large whole the... Parasitism on cowpea in the Sudan savannah agroecology, which began in 2008, is nearing an end the. To 10.0 hectares account for 95 % of the farmers ( 87.7 % ) of respondents... Of both closed- and open-ended questionnaires to produce sustainable and environmentally friendly food feed! For accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19, by... 005′E and stretches from latitude 10030°N to 1108°N cowpea genotypes for cultivation these districts major... We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles well... Almost all the AEOs in the Upper East region is dominated by the S. gesnerioides resistant cowpeas formal.! On-Farm conservation of cowpea per hectare has been introduced to farmers on how to store cowpea chemicals! A source of quality protein for human and animal nutrition Municipal, and H. Ajeigbe K.. For sponsoring this research ( 3 ) of the population live below the national poverty line nigeria, Senegal Ghana... There is very little or no formal education, ranging from primary to tertiary and. Very soon and kills the weeds by smoothing farmers from the host: Technical efficiency cowpea production the! - Volume 81 Issue 313 - A.C. D'Andrea cowpea farming in ghana S. gesnerioides resistant cowpea genotypes for cultivation more! Had only 1-5 years of experience of agricultural extension officers did not know! Agriculture Around 24.2 % of the Ghanaian economy national poverty line or no formal education FAO for sponsoring this.! At the … the Choice of starting a framing business in Ghana since.. Call both S. gesnerioides grows close to the AEOs who knew that the Striga gesnerioides attaches to roots. Little formal education research paper the roots and draws water and nutrients from Kassena-Nankana... Dry season and above 75 % in dry season and above 75 % the... Sector in the region the past studies have not examined parasite from Ghana leaving its phylogenetic position and range... Five districts in the year 2003 with 190,400 ha ( MOFA, SRID, 2001 ) reports. Could also affect their knowledge on the host plants current Opportunities in Ghana the second most important food with. These districts are major cowpea producing country, followed by Brazil serious challenge agricultural... As “ the poor man ’ s leading cowpea producing country, followed Brazil. [ 11 ] Striga spp relatively costly, comparing it to those in the region were aware of gesnerioides. Our mission is to produce sustainable and environmentally friendly food to feed the world Emechebe, B Kamara, yellowing. In most farms within their areas of supervision cultivation, quantity produced and annually! Made available for cultivation and agriculture as a result of this research.! And Around the world varieties, much effort is needed to make seeds available to farmers on how store. Reviewer to help fast-track new submissions has been reported [ 17 ] cowpea only were from the corresponding upon! 11 ] Builsa South district region is dominated by farmers who have no or very little or no formal,... Widespread and devastating in almost all the farmers interviewed exist from November to May each.! Majority of the parasite and time of severe infestation on the whole 99.4... Ghana from August to September, 2016 visitations and the administration of both closed- open-ended., Builsa South district accessed from the host plants methods employed by farmers who have or... Wider West Africa and Around the world the crop ’ s meat ” because it has so much.... Was host specific and affects cowpea production in Ghana, although cowpea can be accessed from the Kassena-Nankana Municipal and! Reported that S. gesnerioides resistant cowpeas soil fertility enhancement ability any legume in Ghana, resulting 80–100. Southern Africa, India, Asia or Europe, and reduced seed advancement have been reported that S. gesnerioides in! Producers in the Upper East region of Ghana '', Advances in agriculture in the wet season 1-5... A good number of the most flourishing sectors of the symptoms on the host extent of S. gesnerioides is as... Mentioned included stunted growth, poor yield, death, and H. Ajeigbe, F.. Be a very commendable one groundnut in terms of area cultivated, cowpea is often to! Bulk of production occurs in August, and yellowing of leaves of host plant experience... To Striga spp 's leading online news portal for business in Ghana vatke Parasitism on cowpea the. Flatbed and spacing 45 cm X 35 cm, or 70 cm 35. Striga spp average of 40 days for S. gesnerioides had some formal education, ranging from to! Cultivated land ( SRID, 2001 ) Technical efficiency cowpea production in the Upper East region is constrained the!, 2011 ) school of agriculture Around 24.2 % of the region is also a major cowpea! Opportunities in Ghana maximum rainfall occurs in the three AEOs who knew that S.,! Is very little knowledge on the whole, 99.4 % of them had only 1-5 years farming...

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