Antony wanted to cross the Adriatic Sea and blockade Octavian at either Tarentum or Brundisium, but Cleopatra, concerned primarily with defending Egypt, overrode the decision to attack Italy directly.  By the end of 40 BC, Cleopatra had given birth to twins, a boy named Alexander Helios and a girl named Cleopatra Selene II, both of whom Antony acknowledged as his children. The last active ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, nominally survived as pharaoh by her son Caesarion.  Despite not being a biography of Cleopatra, the Life of Antonius written by Plutarch in the 1st century AD provides the most thorough surviving account of Cleopatra's life.  By the spring of 48 BC Cleopatra had traveled to Roman Syria with her younger sister, Arsinoe IV, to gather an invasion force that would head to Egypt.  She also received Ptolemais Akko (modern Acre, Israel), a city that was established by Ptolemy II. [note 23] Despite these problems, Ptolemy XII created a will designating Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIII as his joint heirs, oversaw major construction projects such as the Temple of Edfu and a temple at Dendera, and stabilized the economy.  Cleopatra sent the Gabiniani culprits to Bibulus as prisoners awaiting his judgment, but he sent them back to Cleopatra and chastised her for interfering in their adjudication, which was the prerogative of the Roman Senate. After losing the 48 BC Battle of Pharsalus in Greece against his rival Julius Caesar (a Roman dictator and consul) in Caesar's Civil War, the Roman statesman Pompey fled to Egypt. [note 31] Caesar expressed grief and outrage over the killing of Pompey and called on both Ptolemy XIII and Cleopatra to disband their forces and reconcile with each other.  The woman in the basalt statue also holds a divided, double cornucopia (dikeras), which can be seen on coins of both Arsinoe II and Cleopatra.  Cleopatra was also featured in operas, such as George Frideric Handel's 1724 Giulio Cesare in Egitto, which portrayed the love affair of Caesar and Cleopatra. [note 62] The fragmentary Libyka commissioned by Cleopatra's son-in-law Juba II provides a glimpse at a possible body of historiographic material that supported Cleopatra's perspective. [note 3] It is said she was accompanied by her servants Eiras and Charmion, who also took their own lives. After their meeting at Tarsos in 41 BC, the queen had an affair with Antony. , Antony and Cleopatra had a larger fleet than Octavian, but the crews of Antony and Cleopatra's navy were not all well-trained, some of them perhaps from merchant vessels, whereas Octavian had a fully professional force. That does not, however, make her any less Egyptian. [note 7] Her native language was Koine Greek, and she was the only Ptolemaic ruler to learn the Egyptian language.  Behind her golden diadem, crowned with a red jewel, is a translucent veil with crinkles that suggest the "melon" hairstyle favored by the queen. [note 29] Given his close relationship with the Ptolemies, Pompey ultimately decided that Egypt would be his place of refuge, where he could replenish his forces. , A large Ptolemaic black basalt statue measuring 104 centimetres (41 in) in height, now in the Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg, is thought to represent Arsinoe II, wife of Ptolemy II, but recent analysis has indicated that it could depict her descendant Cleopatra due to the three uraei adorning her headdress, an increase from the two used by Arsinoe II to symbolize her rule over Lower and Upper Egypt. Ptolemaic queens, some of whom were the sisters of their husbands, were usually called Cleopatra, Arsinoe or Berenice.  Cleopatra V (or VI) was expelled from the court of Ptolemy XII in late 69 BC, a few months after the birth of Cleopatra, while Ptolemy XII's three younger children were all born during the absence of his wife. 69-30BC; last ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty; connected with Roman generals Julius Caesar and Mark Anthony; allied with Romans in forces lost at Battle of Actium (31BC) which led to Roman general Octavian's annexation of Egypt and suicide of general Anthony and Cleopatra in 30BC.  Coins dated to the period of her marriage to Antony, which also bear his image, portray the queen as having a very similar aquiline nose and prominent chin as that of her husband.  After losing some 30,000 men, more than Crassus at Carrhae (an indignity he had hoped to avenge), Antony finally arrived at Leukokome near Berytus (modern Beirut, Lebanon) in December, engaged in heavy drinking before Cleopatra arrived to provide funds and clothing for his battered troops. The Latinized form Cleopatra comes from the Ancient Greek Kleopátra (Κλεοπάτρα), meaning "glory of her father", from κλέος (kléos, "glory") and πᾰτήρ (patḗr, "father"). [note 33], When Ptolemy XIII realized that his sister was in the palace consorting directly with Caesar, he attempted to rouse the populace of Alexandria into a riot, but he was arrested by Caesar, who used his oratorical skills to calm the frenzied crowd. [note 5] As a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, she was a descendant of its founder Ptolemy I Soter, a Macedonian Greek general and companion of Alexander the Great.  Octavia arranged the betrothal of Cleopatra Selene II to Juba II, son of Juba I, whose North African kingdom of Numidia had been turned into a Roman province in 46 BC by Julius Caesar due to Juba I's support of Pompey.  During the next senatorial session, Octavian entered the Senate house with armed guards and levied his own accusations against the consuls.  Cleopatra sailed up the Kydnos River to Tarsos in Thalamegos, hosting Antony and his officers for two nights of lavish banquets on board the ship.  With Antony's will made public, Octavian had his casus belli, and Rome declared war on Cleopatra, not Antony. , Roman interventionism in Egypt predated the reign of Cleopatra.  The woman in the painting wears a royal diadem over her head and is strikingly similar in appearance to the Vatican Cleopatra, which bears possible marks on the marble of its left cheek where a cupid's arm may have been torn off. Caesar then attempted to reconcile the rival Ptolemaic siblings, but Ptolemy's chief adviser Potheinos viewed Caesar's terms as favoring Cleopatra, so his forces besieged her and Caesar at the palace.  Cleopatra Selene II and Alexander Helios were present in the Roman triumph of Octavian in 29 BC.  After returning to Italy from the wars in Gaul and crossing the Rubicon in January of 49 BC, Caesar had forced Pompey and his supporters to flee to Greece. , Caesarion, Cleopatra's alleged child with Caesar, was born 23 June 47 BC and was originally named "Pharaoh Caesar", as preserved on a stele at the Serapeum in Memphis.  By the summer of 36 BC, she had given birth to Ptolemy Philadelphus, her second son with Antony. , By the spring of 40 BC, Antony left Egypt due to troubles in Syria, where his governor Lucius Decidius Saxa was killed and his army taken by Quintus Labienus, a former officer under Cassius who now served the Parthian Empire. He was the last sovereign member of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt.  The portrait painting of Cleopatra's death was perhaps among the great number of artworks and treasures taken from Rome by Emperor Hadrian to decorate his private villa, where it was found in an Egyptian temple. Cleopatra of Egypt ©Cleopatra VII was the last ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty, ruling Egypt from 51 BC - 30 BC. The Ptolemaic Dynasty The Ptolemaic Dynasty was the 32nd and last dynasty in Ancient Egypt. Soon after Julius Caesar re… Like many of the women of her era, she was highly educated, being groomed for the throne by her father Ptolemy XII in the traditional Greek (Hellenistic) manner. [note 44], Octavian, Antony, and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate in 43 BC, in which they were each elected for five-year terms to restore order in the Republic and bring Caesar's assassins to justice. The Ptolemaic dynasty, also known as the Lagids or Lagidae, was a Macedonian Greek royal family who ruled over Egypt. , Cleopatra VII was born in early 69 BC to the ruling Ptolemaic pharaoh Ptolemy XII and an unknown mother,[note 13] presumably Ptolemy XII's wife Cleopatra VI Tryphaena (also known as Cleopatra V Tryphaena),[note 14][note 4] the mother of Cleopatra's older sister, Berenice IV Epiphaneia.  Losing the fight against her brother, Cleopatra was then forced to flee Alexandria and withdraw to the region of Thebes.  An asp is absent from the painting, but many Romans held the view that she received poison in another manner than a venomous snakebite. [note 77] While Cleopatra's paternal line can be traced, the identity of her mother is unknown.  In his Kleopatra und die Caesaren (2006), Bernard Andreae [de] contends that this basalt statue, like other idealized Egyptian portraits of the queen, does not contain realistic facial features and hence adds little to the knowledge of her appearance.  Cleopatra planned to relinquish her throne to him, take her fleet from the Mediterranean into the Red Sea, and then set sail to a foreign port, perhaps in India, where she could spend time recuperating.  After Cleopatra's suicide, Octavian commissioned a painting to be made depicting her being bitten by a snake, parading this image in her stead during his triumphal procession in Rome. Their rule lasted for 275 years, from 305 BC to 30 BC. The names of the last two, the short-lived Thirty-First Dynasty and the longer-lasting Ptolemaic Dynasty…  Cleopatra was conspicuously absent from these events and resided in the palace, most likely because she had been pregnant with Caesar's child since September 48 BC. [note 81] Michael Grant asserts that there is only one known Egyptian mistress of a Ptolemy and no known Egyptian wife of a Ptolemy, further arguing that Cleopatra probably did not have any Egyptian ancestry and "would have described herself as Greek. [note 38] Ptolemy XIII and Arsinoe IV withdrew their forces to the Nile, where Caesar attacked them.  Cleopatra, aboard her flagship, the Antonias, commanded 60 ships at the mouth of the Ambracian Gulf, at the rear of the fleet, in what was likely a move by Antony's officers to marginalize her during the battle. Ptolemy VI Philometor was the sixth ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty.  Cleopatra's insistence that she be involved in the battle for Greece led to the defections of prominent Romans, such as Ahenobarbus and Lucius Munatius Plancus. , Antony and Cleopatra traveled together to Ephesus in 32 BC, where she provided him with 200 of the 800 naval ships he was able to acquire. , Cleopatra and her nominal joint ruler Ptolemy XIV visited Rome sometime in late 46 BC, presumably without Caesarion, and were given lodging in Caesar's villa within the Horti Caesaris. Lastly, the final pharaoh of Egypt was Cleopatra VII who is known to history as simply Cleopatra. Cleopatra VII Philopator (Koinē Greek: Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; 69 BC – 10 August 30 BC) was the last active ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt. …  Cleopatra's physician Olympos did not explain her cause of death, although the popular belief is that she allowed an asp or Egyptian cobra to bite and poison her.  Fulvia and Antony's brother Lucius Antonius were eventually besieged by Octavian at Perusia (modern Perugia, Italy) and then exiled from Italy, after which Fulvia died at Sicyon in Greece while attempting to reach Antony. , Caesar's term as consul had expired at the end of 48 BC.  To the west Cleopatra was handed Cyrene along the Libyan coast, as well as Itanos and Olous in Roman Crete. Octavian wanted to publicize it for propaganda purposes, but the two consuls, both supporters of Antony, had it censored from public view.  In his unfinished 1825 short story The Egyptian Nights, Alexander Pushkin popularized the claims of the 4th-century Roman historian Aurelius Victor, previously largely ignored, that Cleopatra had prostituted herself to men who paid for sex with their lives.  Ptolemy XI, and perhaps his uncle Ptolemy IX or father Ptolemy X Alexander I, willed the Ptolemaic Kingdom to Rome as collateral for loans, so that the Romans had legal grounds to take over Egypt, their client state, after the assassination of Ptolemy XI.  Her sudden death led to a reconciliation of Octavian and Antony at Brundisium in Italy in September 40 BC.  Burstein writes that partisan Roman writers would later accuse Cleopatra of cowardly deserting Antony, but their original intention of keeping their sails on board may have been to break the blockade and salvage as much of their fleet as possible.  Cleopatra attempted to provide him with a military assignment, but Herod declined and traveled to Rome, where the triumvirs Octavian and Antony named him king of Judea.  The Dendera Temple complex, near Dendera, Egypt, contains Egyptian-style carved relief images along the exterior walls of the Temple of Hathor depicting Cleopatra and her young son Caesarion as a grown adult and ruling pharaoh making offerings to the gods.  He left three legions in Egypt, later increased to four, under the command of the freedman Rufio, to secure Cleopatra's tenuous position, but also perhaps to keep her activities in check. Ptolemy VI Philometor 180-164 & 163-145 B.C.  Contemporary images of Cleopatra were produced both in and outside of Ptolemaic Egypt.  Augustus had his name inscribed there following the death of Cleopatra.  Helios (the Sun) and Selene (the Moon) were symbolic of a new era of societal rejuvenation, as well as an indication that Cleopatra hoped Antony would repeat the exploits of Alexander the Great by conquering the Parthians. She ruled Egypt for 22 years, controlling much of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. "All the male rulers of the dynasty took the name Ptolemy.  It is likely, due to political expediency, that Antony's visage was made to conform not only to hers but also to those of her Macedonian Greek ancestors who founded the Ptolemaic dynasty, to familiarize himself to her subjects as a legitimate member of the royal house. [note 54] The legal argument for war was based less on Cleopatra's territorial acquisitions, with former Roman territories ruled by her children with Antony, and more on the fact that she was providing military support to a private citizen now that Antony's triumviral authority had expired.  Ptolemy XI had his wife killed shortly after their marriage in 80 BC, but was lynched soon thereafter in the resulting riot over the assassination. Cleopatra was the last Pharaoh of t he Kingdom of Egypt & the last active ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty. [note 15] Cleopatra Tryphaena disappears from official records a few months after the birth of Cleopatra in 69 BC. Cleopatra traveled to Rome as a client queen in 46 and 44 BC, where she stayed at Caesar's villa. Pompey had been a political ally of Ptolemy XII, but Ptolemy XIII, at the urging of his court eunuchs, had Pompey ambushed and killed before Caesar arrived and occupied Alexandria. Like the earlier dynasties of ancient Egypt, the Ptolemaic dynasty practiced inbreeding including sibling marriage, but this did not start in earnest until nearly a century into the dynasty's history. Other articles where Ptolemaic dynasty is discussed: ancient Egypt: The Ptolemaic dynasty: Until the day when he openly assumed an independent kingship as Ptolemy I Soter, on November 7, 305 bce, Ptolemy used only the title satrap of Egypt, but the great hieroglyphic Satrap stela, which he had inscribed in 311 bce, indicates a degree…  Fictional novels such as H. Rider Haggard's Cleopatra (1889) and Théophile Gautier's One of Cleopatra's Nights (1838) depicted the queen as a sensual and mystic Easterner, while the Egyptologist Georg Ebers's Cleopatra (1894) was more grounded in historical accuracy. It was one of four dynasties established by Alexander's successors, the others being the Seleucid dynasty, Ptolemaic dynasty and Attalid dynasty.  Through the marriage of Ptolemy V Epiphanes and Cleopatra I Syra (a Seleucid princess), the name entered the Ptolemaic dynasty. [note 12] Aside from Greek, Egyptian, and Latin, these languages reflected Cleopatra's desire to restore North African and West Asian territories that once belonged to the Ptolemaic Kingdom. When he died in 51 BC, the joint reign of Cleopatra and her brother Ptolemy XIII began, but a falling-out between them led to open civil war.  During her youth Cleopatra presumably studied at the Musaeum, including the Library of Alexandria.  Antony and Cleopatra lost several skirmishes against Octavian around Actium during the summer of 31 BC, while defections to Octavian's camp continued, including Antony's long-time companion Dellius and the allied kings Amyntas of Galatia and Deiotaros of Paphlagonia.  A highly similar painted bust of a woman with a blue headband in the House of the Orchard at Pompeii features Egyptian-style imagery, such as a Greek-style sphinx, and may have been created by the same artist. Her romantic relations with Roman emperor Julius Ceasar and Mark Antony as well as her exotic charm and alleged "powers of seduction" have earned her a popular placeholder in literature and pop-culture.  This statue likely formed the basis of her depictions in both sculpted art as well as this painting at Pompeii. , Cleopatra's gender has perhaps led to her depiction as a minor if not insignificant figure in ancient, medieval, and even modern historiography about ancient Egypt and the Greco-Roman world.  Pinarius had these messengers executed and then defected to Octavian's side, surrendering to him the four legions under his command that Antony desired to obtain. Shortly after the siege was lifted by reinforcements, Ptolemy XIII died in the 47 BC Battle of the Nile; Cleopatra's half-sister Arsinoe IV was eventually exiled to Ephesus for her role in carrying out the siege. , Cleopatra appeared in miniatures for illuminated manuscripts, such as a depiction of her and Antony lying in a Gothic-style tomb by the Boucicaut Master in 1409. He carried out the execution of Arsinoe at her request, and became increasingly reliant on Cleopatra for both funding and military aid during his invasions of the Parthian Empire and the Kingdom of Armenia.  Cleopatra hid herself in her tomb with her close attendants and sent a message to Antony that she had committed suicide.  He was followed by William Shakespeare, whose Antony and Cleopatra, largely based on Plutarch, was first performed in 1608 and provided a somewhat salacious view of Cleopatra in stark contrast to England's own Virgin Queen. Here's All You Need to Know About the Egyptian Monarch, Zaheer Khan-Sagarika Ghatge Expecting First Child, Gal Gadot's Casting Sparks Criticism, Cleopatra Was Not Arab, But Twitter is Slamming Israeli Gal Gadot for Playing Her Role in Film, Israeli Actress Gal Gadot's Casting as Egyptian Queen Cleopatra in Hollywood Film Sparks Criticism, 5 Films that Immortalised Egyptian Queen Cleopatra in Popular Culture, Glamorous Pictures of Bollywood Fashionista Sonam Kapoor, Rochelle Rao Sets Social Media on Blaze With Her Vacation Pictures. [note 16] However, Ptolemy XII's profligate behavior bankrupted him and he was forced to acquire loans from the Roman banker Gaius Rabirius Postumus. [note 2] Octavian was convinced by the advice of the philosopher Arius Didymus that there was room for only one Caesar in the world.  The historian Suetonius provided considerable details about the voyage, including use of Thalamegos, the pleasure barge constructed by Ptolemy IV, which during his reign measured 90 metres (300 ft) in length and 24 metres (80 ft) in height and was complete with dining rooms, state rooms, holy shrines, and promenades along its two decks, resembling a floating villa. [note 25] Rabirius was unable to collect the entirety of Ptolemy XII's debt by the time of the latter's death, and so it was passed on to his successors Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIII. She was able to work shrewdly with Roman generals and leaders to advance the interests of her kingdom. Their rule lasted for 275 years, from 305 BC to 30 BC.  The sculpture also has pronounced eyes that share similarities with Roman copies of Ptolemaic sculpted works of art.  Although most likely later pro-Octavian propaganda, it was reported that at this time Cleopatra started testing the strengths of various poisons on prisoners and even her own servants. After the assassinations of Caesar and (on her orders) Ptolemy XIV in 44 BC, she named Caesarion co-ruler. Ptolemaic queens, some of whom were the sisters of their husbands, were usually called Cleopatra, Arsinoe or Berenice. ", Another painting from Pompeii, dated to the early 1st century AD and located in the House of Giuseppe II, contains a possible depiction of Cleopatra with her son Caesarion, both wearing royal diadems while she reclines and consumes poison in an act of suicide. , Of the surviving Greco-Roman-style busts and heads of Cleopatra,[note 66] the sculpture known as the "Berlin Cleopatra", located in the Antikensammlung Berlin collection at the Altes Museum, possesses her full nose, whereas the head known as the "Vatican Cleopatra", located in the Vatican Museums, is damaged with a missing nose. , Cleopatra perhaps started to view Antony as a liability by the late summer of 31 BC, when she prepared to leave Egypt to her son Caesarion. , Left: A Roman head of either Cleopatra or her daughter, Cleopatra's kingdom and role as a monarch. , In December 40 BC Cleopatra received Herod in Alexandria as an unexpected guest and refugee who fled a turbulent situation in Judea. He was not the last of the Ptolemaic rulers, however.  In order to stabilize the east, Antony not only enlarged Cleopatra's domain, he also established new ruling dynasties and client rulers who would be loyal to him, yet would ultimately outlast him. There is academic disagreement on whether the following portraits are considered "heads" or "busts". Cleopatra VII (69-30 BC) *Last ruler of Ptolemaic dynasty *Connected with Julius Caesar (Roman general/dictator, assassinated in 44 BC) and Marc Anthony (Roman General) *Lost battle of Actium (31 BC) leading to Roman general Octavian's annexation of Egypt  Her strong, almost masculine facial features in these particular coins are strikingly different from the smoother, softer, and perhaps idealized sculpted images of her in either the Egyptian or Hellenistic styles. [note 30] Ptolemy XIII's advisers, however, feared the idea of Pompey using Egypt as his base in a protracted Roman civil war.  The woman in this portrait has facial features similar to others (including the pronounced aquiline nose), but lacks a royal diadem and sports a different hairstyle.  Apparent financial troubles led Cleopatra to debase her coinage, which included silver and bronze currencies but no gold coins like those of some of her distant Ptolemaic predecessors. Cleopatra was the last Pharaoh of t he Kingdom of Egypt & the last active ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty.  While it is clear that both Cilicia and Cyprus were under Cleopatra's control by 19 November 38 BC, the transfer probably occurred earlier in the winter of 41–40 BC, during her time spent with Antony. The former gave a fiery speech condemning Octavian, now a private citizen without public office, and introduced pieces of legislation against him. Cleopatra was the last ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty, which began with Ptolemy I Soter, a Macedonian general and a companion of Alexander the Great, who took over Egypt in 305-304 BC.  However, she was depicted in an Egyptian statue as the goddess Isis, while some of her coinage depicts her as Venus-Aphrodite. , In regards to surviving Roman statuary, a life-sized Roman-style statue of Cleopatra was found near the Tomba di Nerone [it], Rome, along the Via Cassia and is now housed in the Museo Pio-Clementino, part of the Vatican Museums.  However, Caesar's will named his grandnephew Octavian as the primary heir, and Octavian arrived in Italy around the same time Cleopatra decided to depart for Egypt.  However, Chaucer highlighted Cleopatra's relationships with only two men as hardly the life of a seductress and wrote his works partly in reaction to the negative depiction of Cleopatra in De Mulieribus Claris and De Casibus Virorum Illustrium, Latin works by the 14th-century Italian poet Giovanni Boccaccio. , Antony's Parthian campaign in 36 BC turned into a complete debacle for a number of reasons, in particular the betrayal of Artavasdes II of Armenia, who defected to the Parthian side. For a thorough explanation about the foundation of Alexandria by Alexander the Great and its largely, For the list of languages spoken by Cleopatra as mentioned by the ancient historian, For further information and validation see, Due to discrepancies in academic works, in which some consider, For further information and validation, see, For political background information on the Roman annexation of Cyprus, a move pushed for in the, For further information on Roman financier Rabirius, as well as the Gabiniani left in Egypt by Gabinius, see, For further information about Publius Ventidius Bassus and his victory over.  Publius Canidius Crassus made the counterargument that Cleopatra was funding the war effort and was a competent monarch. , In Greece, Caesar and Pompey's forces engaged each other at the decisive Battle of Pharsalus on 9 August 48 BC, leading to the destruction of most of Pompey's army and his forced flight to Tyre, Lebanon. And just when history was starting to drag a bit, feminist thought and women filmmakers getting their long-overdue space in Hollywood have given rise to the retelling of historic events from a feminist perspective, giving filmmakers a chance to venture once again into previously chartered territories using a new lens.  In a show of solidarity, Antony also had Marcus Antonius Antyllus, his son with Fulvia, enter the ephebi at the same time.  When a spy informed her that Octavian planned to move her and her children to Rome in three days, she prepared for suicide as she had no intentions of being paraded in a Roman triumph like her sister Arsinoe IV. [note 27] By the reign of Cleopatra, however, it was considered a normal arrangement for Ptolemaic rulers.  She oversaw the construction of various temples to Egyptian and Greek gods, a synagogue for the Jews in Egypt, and even built the Caesareum of Alexandria, dedicated to the cult worship of her patron and lover Julius Caesar. The names of the last two, the short-lived Thirty-First Dynasty and the longer-lasting Ptolemaic Dynasty… [note 46], Cleopatra carefully chose Antony as her partner for producing further heirs, as he was deemed to be the most powerful Roman figure following Caesar's demise. Crossword Clue The crossword clue Last ruler of the Julio-Claudian dynasty with 4 letters was last seen on the August 15, 2020.We think the likely answer to this clue is NERO.Below are all possible answers to this clue ordered by its rank. All the male rulers of the dynasty took the name Ptolemy. [note 80] It is generally believed that the Ptolemies did not intermarry with native Egyptians.  Duane W. Roller speculates that the British Museum head, along with those in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo, the Capitoline Museums, and in the private collection of Maurice Nahmen, while having similar facial features and hairstyles as the Berlin portrait but lacking a royal diadem, most likely represent members of the royal court or even Roman women imitating Cleopatra's popular hairstyle. , In late 34 BC, Antony and Octavian engaged in a heated war of propaganda that would last for years.  Pliny the Elder claims in his Natural History that Cleopatra once dissolved a pearl worth tens of millions of sesterces in vinegar just to win a dinner-party bet. , Claims that Cleopatra played an important role in the Roman triumph Octavian... Fiery speech condemning Octavian, now a private affair with Cleopatra that produced a generally critical view of male... Museum of Cherchell, Algeria watchers and producers alike and took the name Ptolemy Gadot play. 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